The appearance and propagation of nosocomial infections requires a chain composed of 3 elements:
A source of pathogen agent
Transmission vectors of pathogen agent
A receptive organism sensitive to infection
Sources of pathogen agents
Agenţii patogeni provin din surse exogene şi endogene:
- Exogeneous sources are represented by contaminated areas that generate and transmit pathogens through transport vectors: sites where mono or polyspecific microbial biofilms have developed: different surfaces such as the surface of the walls inside medical institutions, patient care equipment, medical devices or medical staff carrying pathogens.
- Endogeneous sources are represented by colonizing microorganisms in the body of the immunocompromised patient. These opportunistic microorganisms cause diseases of the host or, through transport vectors, spread from the infected patient throughout the closed environment.
Transport vectors ensure the dissemination of microorganisms in the environment, colonizing medical surfaces, as well as contamination of patients susceptible to infection. The most important transport vectors are:
- transport vectors represented by the medical care staff and the visitors from the hospital
- medical equipment used in various medical procedures which has not been properly disinfected
- air circulation generated by ventilation systems installed inside premises
- transport vectors represented by the ascending thermal currents that form at the air patient interface
Biofilm has the most important role in spreading pathogens inside of premises because:
- Biofilms have the ability to protect bacteria from the action of external factors
- UV radiation weakly penetrates the exopolysaccharide matrix of the biofilm that protects microorganisms from the harmful action of UV radiation
- Existing antibacterial agents have been developed based on their ability to inhibit planktonic bacteria
- Most antibiotics are hydrophobic and do not penetrate the biofilm matrix
Recent research has shown that in order to reduce the microbial load and reduce the risk of nosocomial infections, it is necessary to act in two directions:
take measures to prevent and limit the formation of microbial biofilms on different surfaces by applying antimicrobial coatings which also combat the formation of biofilms
- combating the aero-flora transmitted by thermal or ventilation currents by implementing control measures for ventilation systems
The development of antimicrobial coatings with increased efficiency for the protection of critical surfaces is an important desiderial in the surface decontamination in premises.
The permanent action of antimicrobial protection measures reduces the possibility of biofilm formation and is followed by the decrease of the microbial load on the contact surfaces.
For this reason we created: